One of the systems in Elden Ring that is likely to go under the radar of most players for a very long time is that of major runes. However, they are intimately linked to history, as well as to the circle of Eden, and even to your power. Incidentally, if you thought Souls' ember/humanity system was completely gone, you were wrong. They replace it in a new, more positive form. However, they will have to be earned.
Obtain a major rune
Not all bosses have a major rune, and not all major runes need to be restored. Note that the lords of each major region have a rune. The easiest major rune to obtain is that of Godrick the grafted. It is also the easiest to restore. The good news is that it is by far the best rune for a character before reaching a very high level.
Other major runes:
Restore Major Rune
Go to your inventory and view your key items, press X/Square to view the rune's description, this will tell you where it needs to be restored. Typically, this will be in one of the huge divine towers that overlook the region in which the rune was obtained . But it still involves some form of test to pass, whether it's big enemies, a dungeon with a boss, or climbing.
For the rune of Godrick, it is the isolated tower which is at the end of a huge bridge, east of Valorage Castle, it is difficult to miss it. Go through the main entrance of the castle, dodging the ballistae and the lion, then take the huge bridge guarded by 3 giant fire golems. You will reach a teleportation portal which will take you directly in front of the tower.
All you have to do is enter and take the elevator to restore the rune in this case.
For the others, it's less simple, for example, the Tower of Caelid asks you to climb the ledges outside and make your way above the void.
Activate Major Rune
After restoring your first rune, use a grace point, then select the new option: Major Runes. You will be able to equip it in a special slot, and it will be displayed to the left of your life, mana and stamina bars. The effect of each major rune is indicated in the interface, that of Godrick gives +5 to all attributes (stamina, spirit, strength, endurance, dexterity, intelligence, faith, esotericism), which is absolutely fantastic, especially in departure.
It's a fascinating and terrifying discovery that has been made in FromSoftware's game. There is at least one illusory wall in the Manor that requires attacking it dozens and dozens of times before opening. One can logically fear that there are others.